In order to produce technical springs, which can be found in almost all technical applications, with sustainable functionality, calculations must be carried out very precisely. And the spring calculation is not entirely without it. A lot of mathematical and physical understanding is required, starting with the spring characteristic, through the spring constant, to the spring work. The more individual and purpose-specific the design and geometry of the technical spring, the greater the effort involved in calculating the resilient segments of the product. Note: Without brains there is no optimum and high quality in technical springs.
Spring calculation means: Calculating the tension work
The mechanical work, known as tension work, consists of the potential energy that a technical spring generates and stores after being stretched or compressed. It is about the effect of an external force, i.e. the work that is stored as spring energy when a spring is deformed and released again when the spring is relaxed.
The simple formula does not apply to the spring calculation
We know the formula “work = force x displacement” from physics lessons. Since a technical spring is usually pulled in one direction, one could assume that the work of tension mentioned above is also calculated using this basic formula. This is not the case because one element of the equation is not constant: the spring constant. This size, although the name suggests the opposite, is relative. The spring constant is calculated from the force required to expand the spring, and Hooke's law is used here. It states that the force required to compress a spring increases proportionally to the stretched distance. The force to be calculated here is therefore also not constant.
Important for the spring calculation: the spring characteristic
The calculation of the spring characteristic is about the relationship between spring force and spring deflection. It clarifies the question of how the technical spring behaves at work. The design and geometry of the spring determines whether it is a linear, progressive, degressive or combined spring characteristic. It becomes important in connection with the spring constant (see above), which is also referred to as spring hardness or spring stiffness.
The spring characteristic represents the progression of a spring constant. In this way, it is physically clarified how the force to be applied behaves in relation to the loading of the spring. If the force increases steadily, the spring constant is linear. It is progressive when the force increases disproportionately, degressive when it decreases disproportionately.
Spring calculation is much more
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An article of this brevity can, of course, only touch on a part of the mathematical and physical calculation effort that is necessary for the production of each individual tailor-made spring. If only the deformation work was mentioned here, there is a lot more to consider. The acceleration work and the lifting work are also to be considered carefully depending on the circumstances. The calculations always have their fundamental effect on the overall complex of production. They influence the choice of material and machinery, as well as the hardening and/or surface finishing processes. Count on Schaaf when it comes to optimally designed and manufactured individual technical springs!